Historical Thinking and Skills
1. Historians and archaeologists describe historical events and issues from the perspectives of people living at the time to avoid evaluating the past in terms of today’s norms and values.
People: historians, archaeologists,
2. The civilizations that developed in Greece and Rome had an enduring impact on later civilizations. This legacy includes governance and law, engineering and technology, art and architecture, as well as literature and history. The Roman Empire also played an instrumental role in the spread of Christianity.
Vocabulary: legacy, Roman Empire, art, architecture, engineering, language, writing, philosophy, law, citizenship, mural, mosaic, fresco, vault, dome, cathedral, aqueduct, scribe, proverb
People: Romans, Constantine,
Places: Sistine Chapel, Washington D.C., Parthenon, Pantheon, Arc de Triumph, Roman Colosseum, U.S. Capitol,
Events: roads, aqueducts, etymologies, root words, Roman numerals, democracy, Stoicism, rights of citizenship, responsibilities of citizenship,
Feudalism and Transitions
3. Germanic invasions helped to break up the Roman Empire and set the stage for the development of feudal and manorial systems. Later invasions helped establish Mongol dominance in central Asia and led to the destruction of the Byzantine Empire by the Turks.
Vocabulary: feudalism, manorial system, barbarian, Christianity, Roman Catholic Church, pope, monarch, fief, manor, divine right of kings, noble, duke, moat, hierarchy, armor, chivalry
People: monarch, lords, vassals, knights, peasants, serfs, Charles the Great (Charlemagne), Germanic Tribes, Mongols, Turks,
Places: manor, fief, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire
Events: feudalism, chivalry
4. Mongol influence led to unified states in China and Korea, but the Mongol failure to conquer Japan allowed a feudal system to persist. (Ch.16 p.184, Ch.19 p.208-209)
Vocabulary: maritime trade, observatory,
People: Mongols, Kublai Khan, Yuan dynasty, Marco Polo,
Places: Asia, Mongolia, China, Silk Road,
Events: The Period of Mongol Rule,
5. Achievements in medicine, science, mathematics and geography by the Islamic civilization dominated most of the Mediterranean after the decline of the Roman Empire. These achievements were introduced into Western Europe as a result of the Muslim conquests, Crusades and trade, influencing the European Renaissance.
Vocabulary: legacy, Islam, Abbasid, Fatimid dynasty, immortal, zoology, evolution, astronomy, astrolabe, circumference, algebra, pharmacist, mysticism, calligraphy, conservatory, Holy Land, sultan, Anatolia, ransom, Iberian Peninsula, Inquisition, expulsion, synagogue, anti-Semitism, segregation, shah,
People: Muslims, Abbasid, Fatimid dynasty, Al-Khwarizimi, Ibn Sina, Christians, Seljuks, Pope Urban II, Richard I (the Lionheart), Salah al-Din, Anna Comnena, Usamah ibn-Munqidh,
Places: Baghdad, House of Wisdom, mosque, Makkah (Mecca), Holy Land, Jerusalem, Anatolia, Spain
Events: The Book of Roads and Provinces, The Book of Countries, Arabic numerals, world's first hospitals, The Canon of Medicine, First Crusade, Second Crusade, Third Crusade, The Reconquista, The Inquisition,
6. The Renaissance in Europe introduced revolutionary ideas, leading to cultural, scientific and social changes.
Vocabulary: Renaissance, classical arts, learning, humanism, perspective, patron, city-state, republic, humanities, hoist, secular, circulation, chapel, proportion, engraving, woodcut, axis, dissect, New World, subject, playwright, armada, comedy, tragedy, satire
People: craftspeople, merchants, bankers, Medicis, Catholic Church, Dante Alighieri, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Filippo Brunelleschi, Sandro Botticelli, Masaccio, Donatello, Giorgio Vasari, David, Girolamo Cardano, Galileo Galilei, Niccolo Machiavelli, Johannes Gutenberg, Titian, Albrecht Durer, Nicolaus Copernicus, Andreas Vesalius, Queen Isabella I of Spain, Queen Elizabeth I of England, William Shakespeare, Miguel Cervantes,
Places: Italy, Europe, city-state, Florence, Rome, Sistine Chapel, Globe Theatre
Events: Renaissance, growth of trade and commerce, humanism, invention of the printing press, heliocentric solar system, architecture, sculpting, philosophy, poetry,
7. The Reformation introduced changes in religion including the emergence of Protestant faiths and a decline in the political power and social influence of the Roman Catholic Church.
Vocabulary: Reformation, Protestants, indulgence, simony, papacy, heresy, doctrine, mystic, denomination, New Testament, Old Testament, Counter-Reformation, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, scripture, original sin, Holy Communion, predestination, blasphemy, pulpit, theocracy, missionary, massacre, nationalism, absolute monarchy, Puritan
People: Catholics, Pope, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Catherine of Siena, Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, Pope Leo X, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, King Henry VIII, William Tyndale,
Places: Rome, Wittenberg Church (Germany), England, Europe
Events: Reformation, Ninety-Five Theses, translation of Bible into German, French, and English, predestination, Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent, Spanish Inquisition
First Global Age
8. Empires in Africa (Ghana, Mali and Songhay) and Asia (Byzantine, Ottoman, Mughal and China) grew as commercial and cultural centers along trade routes.
Vocabulary: kingdoms, woodland forests, rainforest, extended family, excavate, tribute,
People: Ghana, Mali, Songhai (Songhay),
Places: West Africa, Sahara Desert, Sahel, woodland forest, rainforest, Jenne-Jeno, Senegal River, Niger River,
Event: trade, taxing, tribute, trans-Saharan trade, spread of Islam, gold & salt trade,
9. The advent of thetrans-Saharan slave trade had profound effects on both West and Central Africa and the receiving societies.
Vocabulary: trans-Saharan trade, matrilineal, headdress, deposit, amulet, succession, patrilineal, scaffolding, textile,
People: Ghana, Mali, Songhai (Songhay), Arabs,
Places: Timbuktu, University of Sankore,
Events: spread of Islam, Qur'an, change from matrilineal to patrilineal, spread of the Arabic language,
10. European economic and cultural influence dramatically increased through explorations, conquests and colonization.
11. The Columbian Exchange (e.g., the exchange of fauna, flora and pathogens) among previously unconnected parts of the world reshaped societies in ways still evident today.