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History Strand


Historical Thinking and Skills
1. Primary and secondary sources are used to examine events from multiple perspectives and to present and defend a position.
Vocabulary:  primary sources, secondary sources, Magna Carta, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Constitution
People:  historian, archaeologist, anthropologist
Places:  classroom, library, internet
Events:  textbooks, journals, newpapers, magazines, pamphlets, pictures

Student will be able to:


  • Identify the author of historical document and assess its credibility

  • Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage

  • Identify the central question

  • Assess the importance of the individual in history

  • Support interpretations with historical evidence

  • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships

  • Employ quantitative analysis

  • Draw comparisons across eras and regions

  • Marshal contextual knowledge and perspectives of the time and place

  • Formulate historical questions

Colonization to Independence


2. North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons.
Vocabulary:  migrate, environment, natural resources, culture, cultural region,
People:  First Americans, Native Americans, American Indians, Indians
Places:  Northwest Coast, California, Great Basin, Plateau, Southwest, Great Plains, Eastern Woodlands, Southeast, Beringia land bridge
Events:  Ice Age, migration from Asia to the East and South, adaptation
Questions to consider:
What were the push and pull factors that influenced migration to the Americas?
How does the natural environment influence human settlement?
How does human settlement influence the natural environment?
3. Competition for control of territory and resources in North America led to conflicts among colonizing powers.
Vocabulary:  slavery, conquistadors, colony, missionaries, trappers
People:  explorers, Christopher Columbus, King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella, Hernan Cortez, Aztecs, Francisco Pizarro, Incas, Juan de Leon, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, Jacques Cartier, Samuel de Champlain, Iroquois, Huron, Father Marquette, Louis Joliet, Robert de La Salle, King Louis XIV, John Cabot, Sir Walter Raleigh, Pocohontas, Dutch
Places:  Old World, Spain, New World, Mexico, Tenochtitlan, Peru, Florida, "fountain of youth", "Seven Cities of Cibola", missions, New France, Canada, Mississippi River, Jamestown, Roanoke, New Amsterdam
Events:  Columbian Exchange, slavery, "gold, God, and glory", "Starving Time"

Questions to consider:
What effects did colonization have on North America?
What are the legacies from colonization that we see today?
4. The practice of race-based slavery led to the forced migration of Africans to the American colonies. Their knowledge and traditions contributed to the development of those colonies and the United States.
Vocabulary:  indentured servant, cash crops, assembly, democratic, Puritans, slave trade
People:  Puritans, Pilgrims, Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker, Quakers, William Penn, Catholics,
Places:  English Colonies, New England Colonies (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut), Plymouth, Middle Colonies (New York, Pennsylvania), Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, Georgia)
Events:  persecution, religious freedom, Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders, slavery, Virginia House of Burgesses,

Questions to consider:
How did the enslavement of African-Americans contribute to the formation of the United States?
How did environment influence the use and non-use of race-based slavery?
What are the legacies of race-based slavery in the Americas today?

5. The ideas of the Enlightenment and dissatisfaction with colonial rule led English colonists to write the Declaration of Independence and launch the American Revolution.
Vocabulary:  Patriots, Loyalists, allies, militia, tyranny, repeal, boycott,
People:  George Washington, "Sons of Liberty", Parliament, King George III, Crispus Attucks, John Adams, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, East India Tea Company, First Continental Congress, Patrick Henry, Minutemen,
Places:  Ohio Valley, Boston Harbor, Philadelphia, Lexington and Concord,
Events:  Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Townshend Acts, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, "no taxation without representation", "the shot heard 'round the world"

Questions to consider:

What ideas of the Enlightenment inspired the American Revolution?

What ideas of the Enlightenment are found in the Declaration of Independence?

A New Nation

6. The outcome of the American Revolution was national independence and new political, social and economic relationships for the American people.
7. Problems arising under the Articles of Confederation led to debate over the adoption of the U.S. Constitution.
8. Actions of early presidential administrations established a strong federal government, provided peaceful transitions of power and repelled a foreign invasion.


9. The United States added to its territory through treaties and purchases.
Events:  Gadsden Purchase
10. Westward expansion contributed to economic and industrial development, debates over sectional issues, war with Mexico and the displacement of American Indians.

Civil War and Reconstruction

11. Disputes over the nature of federalism, complicated by economic developments in the United States, resulted in sectional issues, including slavery, which led to the American Civil War.
12. The Reconstruction period resulted in changes to the U.S. Constitution, an affirmation of federal authority and lingering social and political differences.




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