“CAUSE and EFFECT” Assessment
1. What is a synonym for cause? (1 pt.)
O A. effect O B. apply O C. reason O D. learn
2. Which sentence uses cause correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. The rain was the cause of the flooding.
O B. When is the effect going to spell?
O C. Water is the effect of the cause.
O D. He was grounded ’cause of lying.
3. As Mary grew older, she became more aware of all the different types of people in the world around her who had much less than she had. That is why she dedicated her life to helping children as a full-time volunteer at the hospital.
From the passage above, state the cause of Mary’s becoming more aware of the different people in the world AND what was the effect of her becoming more aware?
Write your answer in this space provided. (2 pts.)
1. What is a synonym for examine? (1 pt.)
O A. disregard O B. ignore O C. inspect O D. overlook
2. Which sentence uses examine correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Examine hearing to check it.
O B. Examine the data to find your answer.
O C. Examine before your temperature finds out.
O D. Examine something from the select.
3. Examine the chart below. In what month did the same amount of precipitation occur during both years? (1 pt.)
4. Examine the chart. In what month did the most precipitation fall? (1 pt.)
5. Below are quotes from Uncle Tom’s Cabin, examine each quote by identifying who is saying it, who they are talking about, what they are talking about, what it means, and how it relates to you. (5 bullets is a complete answer)
a. No one is so thoroughly superstitious as the godless man. --Chapter 39
b. The longest day must have its close — the gloomiest night will wear on to a morning. An eternal, inexorable lapse of moments is ever hurrying the day of the evil to an eternal night, and the night of the just to an eternal day. --Chapter 40
My master! and who made him my master? That's what I think of—what right has he to me? I'm a man as much as he is. I'm a better man than he is. I know more about business than he does; I am a better manager than he is; I can read better than he can; I can write a better hand,—and I've learned it all myself, and no thanks to him,—I've learned it in spite of him; and now what right has he to make a dray-horse of me?—to take me from things I can do, and do better than he can, and put me to work that any horse can do? He tries to do it; he says he'll bring me down and humble me, and he puts me to just the hardest, meanest and dirtiest work, on purpose! I have been careful, and I have been patient, but it's growing worse and worse; flesh and blood can't bear it any longer;—every chance he can get to insult and torment me, he takes. I thought I could do my work well, and keep on quiet, and have some time to read and learn out of work hours; but the more he see I can do, the more he loads on. He says that though I don't say anything, he sees I've got the devil in me, and he means to bring it out; and one of these days it will come out in a way that he won't like, or I'm mistaken! --Chapter 3
I always thought that I must obey my master and mistress, or I couldn't be a Christian. --Chapter 3
The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked as her weight came on it, but she staid there not a moment. With wild cries and desperate energy she leaped to another and still another cake;--stumbling--leaping--slipping--springing upwards again! Her shoes are gone--her stocking cut from her feet--while blood marked every step; but she saw nothing, felt nothing, till dimly, as in a dream, she saw the Ohio side, and a man helping her up the bank. --Chapter 7
It's a shameful, wicked, abominable law, and I'll break it, for one, the first time I get a chance; and I hope I shall have a chance, I do! Things have got to a pretty pass, if a woman can't give a warm supper and a bed to poor, starving creatures, just because they are slaves, and have been abused and oppressed all their lives, poor things! --Chapter 9
We don't own your laws; we don't own your country; we stand here as free, under God's sky, as you are; and, by the great God that made us, we'll fight for our liberty till we die. --Chapter 17
I looks like gwine to heaven, an't thar where white folks is gwine? S'pose they'd have me thar? I'd rather go to torment, and get away from Mas'r and Missis. --Chapter 18
When I have been travelling up and down on our boats, or about on my collecting tours, and reflected that every brutal, disgusting, mean, low-lived fellow I met, was allowed by our laws to become absolute despot of as many men, women and children, as he could cheat, steal, or gamble money enough to buy,--when I have seen such men in actual ownership of helpless children, of young girls and women,--I have been ready to curse my country, to curse the human race! --Chapter 19
The horrid cruelties and outrages that once and a while find their way into the papers ... what do they come from? In many cases, it is a gradual hardening process on both sides — the owner growing more and more cruel, as the servant more and more callous. Whipping and abuse are like laudanum; you have to double the dose as the sensibilities decline. --Chapter 20
Any mind that is capable of a real sorrow is capable of good. --Chapter 28
Perhaps it is impossible for a person who does no good not to do harm.--Chapter 28
Now, I'm principled against emancipating, in any case. Keep a negro under the care of a master, and he does well enough, and is respectable; but set them free, and they get lazy, and won't work, and take to drinking, and go all down to be mean, worthless fellows. I've seen it tried, hundreds of times. It's no favor to set them free. --Chapter 29
The martyr, when faced even by a death of bodily anguish and horror, finds in the very terror of his doom a strong stimulant and tonic. There is a vivid excitement, a thrill and fervor, which may carry through any crisis of suffering that is the birth-hour of eternal glory and rest. But to live, — to wear on, day after day, of mean, bitter, low, harassing servitude, every nerve dampened and depressed, every power of feeling gradually smothered, — this long and wasting heart-martyrdom, this slow, daily bleeding away of the inward life, drop by drop, hour after hour, — this is the true searching test of what there may be in man or woman. --Chapter 38
A day of grace is yet held out to us. Both North and South have been guilty before God; and the Christian church has a heavy account to answer. Not by combining together, to protect injustice and cruelty, and making a common capital of sin, is this Union to be saved,--but by repentance, justice and mercy; for, not surer is the eternal law by which the millstone sinks in the ocean, than that stronger law, by which injustice and cruelty shall bring on nations the wrath of Almighty God!--Chapter 45
MARCH 20, 2012
The Anniversary of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Today marks the 160th anniversary of the publication of one of the most influential books in American History: Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Harriet Beecher was born June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut to notable religious parents of a fiercely evangelical Protestant stripe. Harriet was one of nine children born to Lyman and Roxana Foote Beecher. Harriet was only five years old when her mother died and had two younger siblings and six older siblings when her mother died in 1816. The next year Lyman married Harriet Porter and together they produced an additional four children.
Harriet Beecher was educated at the Harford Female Seminary, founded by her sister, Catharine Beecher, in 1823. In 1832, at the age of 21, she and Catharine joined their father in his move to Cincinnati. Catharine again started her own female seminary while Harriet taught alongside her father at Lane.
While in Cincinnati, Harriet joined a literary society; the Semi-Colon Club. It was here she met Biblical scholar, Calvin Ellis Stowe and his wife, Lydia Tyler Stowe. Lydia died in the summer of 1834 and in January, 1936 the childless widower wed Harriet Beecher and together they had seven children.
Harriet Beecher Stowe lived in Cincinnati until 1850 and while there became aware of the strong abolitionist movement in Ohio, particularly in Cincinnati, and interviewed numerous escaped slaves. In 1833, when Cincinnati was in the grip of a Cholera epidemic, Harriet was sent to stay with the Marshall Key Family, whose daughter, Elizabeth, was a student at the Lane Seminary, in Washington, Kentucky. It was Mr. Key, a nephew of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall, who took Harriet to witness a slave auction on the Courthouse lawn in nearby Maysville, Kentucky; an experience that left a deep impression on Harriet. Harriet had just moved to Brunswick, Maine where her husband had taken a position at Bowdoin College when she was outraged by the passage of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act which required Free states return escaped slaves to bondage, by force, if necessary. Assisting an escaped slave became a crime punishable with up to six months in prison and $1,000 fine. People of color could be seized on the sworn oath of any claimant and the enslaved person was not entitled to judicial process.
As she sat down to write what would become one of the most influential works of fiction in human history, Harriet Beecher Stowe was also influence by a man, Josiah Henson, author of the 1849 book, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself.
Josiah Henson was born in 1789 in Charles County, Maryland near the town of Port Tobacco, the same area where my first American Hamilton ancestor, James Alexander Hamilton of Scotland settled as a Plantation owner back in the 17th Century.
Josiah Henson’s mother and father were owned by different owners but his mother was leased to the same Plantation where his father was held. One of Henson’s earliest memories is of his father beaten and with one ear sliced off after his father had stood up to an Overseer who had committed a “brutal assault” on Josiah’s mother. Josiah remembers that after this beating his father, “became a different man, and was so morose and disobedient.” Soon after his father’s owner sold him to a relative in Alabama and his mother ceased working at that Plantation.
The next couple of years are recalled as sort of a golden time by Henson as he and his mother lived in the household of her owner, a physician who treated Henson as a “pet.” This interlude ended when Josiah was five years old and his owner died after drunkenly falling off his horse and drowning in a shallow stream and Josiah was sold at public auction.
He remembers, “My brothers and sisters were bid off one by one, while my mother, holding my hand, looked on in an agony of grief, the cause of which but ill understood at first, but which dawned on my mind, with dreadful clearness, as the sale proceeded. My mother was then separated from me, and put up in her turn. She was bought by a man named Isaac R., residing in Montgomery county, and then I was offered to the assembled purchasers. My mother, half distracted with the parting forever from all her children, pushed through the crowd, while the bidding for me was going on, to the spot where R. was standing. She fell at his feet, and clung to his knees, entreating him in tones that a mother only could command, to buy her baby as well as herself, and spare to her one of her little ones at least. Will it, can it be believed that this man, thus appealed to, was capable not merely of turning a deaf ear to her supplication, but of disengaging himself from her with such violent blows and kicks, as to reduce her to the necessity of creeping out of his reach, and mingling the groan of bodily suffering with the sob of a breaking heart?
Josiah was purchased by a local Tavern Keeper who, in turn, sold him to Isaac Riley, the man who had purchased his mother after Josiah fell ill.
Josiah Henson describes Isaac Riley as, “Coarse and vulgar in his habits, unprincipled and cruel in his general deportment, and especially addicted to the vice of licentiousness, his slaves had little opportunity for relaxation from wearying labor, were supplied with the scantiest means of sustaining their toil by necessary food, and had no security for personal rights. The natural tendency of slavery is, to convert the master into a tyrant, and the slave into the cringing, treacherous, false, and thieving victim of tyranny. R. and his slaves were no exception to the general rule, but might be cited as apt illustrations of the nature of the case.”
Josiah Henson became a trusted slave on Isaac Riley’s Plantation, being naturally ambitious, until he was made superintendent of the family’s farming operations.
In 1825, Isaac Riley had married a young woman of eighteen, a fraction of Mr. Riley’s age, who proved to be a harsh mistress. At the same time, Isaac Riley had become involved in several legal disputes and was afraid the Sheriff would seize his slaves and sell them to settle his debts so he sent Josiah and his family, a wife and two children, along with 18 fellow slaves, to his brother Amos Riley’s Plantation in Yellow Banks, Kentucky, which by then had changed its name to Owensborough before settling on the name my hometown is now known by, Owensboro.
When Josiah Henson and his party reached Ohio “we were frequently told that we were free, if we chose to be so. At Cincinnati, especially, the colored people gathered round us, and urged us with much importunity to remain with them; told us it was folly to go on; and in short used all the arguments now so familiar to induce slaves to quit their masters.”
Josiah Henson had longed dreamed of freedom but freedom with what he perceived as “honor” in that he intended to purchase his freedom and had saved forty dollars toward that goal.
“I have often had painful doubts as to the propriety of my carrying so many other individuals into slavery again,” Henson later recalled, “and my consoling reflection has been, that I acted as I thought at the time was best.”
Josiah Henson arrived in Daviess County, Kentucky with his human cargo in April, 1825. He found the Plantation of Amos Riley, situated five miles south of the Ohio River and extending all the way to the water, to be, “in many respects more comfortable than that I had left. The farm was larger, and more fertile, and there was a greater abundance of food, which is, of course, one of the principal sources of the comfort of a slave, debarred, as he is, from so many enjoyments which other men can obtain.”
Although Isaac Riley had stated he and his bride would be relocating to Kentucky soon, Josiah spent the next three years working for Amos Riley with no Isaac in sight. By 1828, Isaac Riley announced that he could not persuade his wife to move to Kentucky and for Amos to sell all of the slaves belonging to Isaac except for Josiah and his family and this was done.
During this time Josiah met a local Methodist Minister who took a great interest in Josiah, who had already learned something of the Christian faith from his mother who had taught him the Lord’s Prayer, and soon Josiah became a lay preacher. A trip to the Methodist Conference in Ohio earned him more money to the point where he had a fine suit of clothes, a good horse and $350 in his pocket. He now wrangled a pass from Amos to return to Maryland to negotiate for his freedom.
Arriving in Maryland, Josiah Henson met up with a man who helped him negotiate with Isaac Riley who agreed to sell Josiah his manumission papers for $350 in cash and a $100 note to be worked off by Josiah. Josiah agreed to these terms.
Returning to Kentucky, Josiah found his owner now claimed he owed a thousand dollars for his freedom. He continued to work for Amos for another year before Amos began telling him that Isaac was demanding his money. Soon after that, Amos Riley ordered Josiah to accompany Riley’s 21-year-old son, Amos, Jr., to New Orleans to sell some goods, among them, Josiah himself. It was only through providence in the form of “river fever” striking Amos, Jr., that Josiah escaped his fate.
Josiah accompanied the gravely ill younger Amos back to Kentucky where the Riley family was astounded by his return, Rather than expressing any gratitude for Josiah’s care of Amos, Jr., they instead talked about how Josiah’s actions made him a more valuable commodity. Josiah vowed to escape and escape he did, in 1830, taking his wife and children with him, to Ontario, Canada where he served in the Canadian military, purchased 200 acres of land, founded a utopian Black settlement called Dawn of Tomorrow in the town of Dawn and dictated his autobiography.
Harriet Beecher Stowe began Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1850, work-shopping it among the students and faculty at Bowdoin. The first installment of Uncle Tom’s Cabin appeared June 5, 1851 in the National Era magazine to be followed by 39 more installments. The serial proved so popular that it was published in books form on March 20, 1852.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin proved immensely popular, selling over a half a million copies of the first printing in the United States in Britain. Josiah Henson republished his memoirs with a forward by Harriet Beecher Stowe. His renewed popularity led to a speaking tour where he met many heads of State. He died in the settlement of Dawn on May 5, 1883, at the age of 93. The settlement of Dawn, near Dresden, Ontario, became the five acre Uncle Tom’s Cabin Historic Site complete with interactive exhibits. There is also a cabin, though not a slave cabin, from the Isaac Riley house in Maryland set to open to the public this year and a Historical Marker on Highway 60 commemorating the spot where Amos Riley’s Plantation once stood on Highway 60 in Owensboro, Kentucky. In 1983 he became the first Black person to be featured on a Canadian stamp.
Harriet Beecher Stowe was also honored on a postage stamp, in 2007, when the United States Postal service included her in their special seventy-five cent “Distinguished Americans” series. There are also several houses where she lived; in Cincinnati, in Florida, in Maine, in Connecticut, that are kept as shrines to her memory. Harriet Beecher Stowe died July 1, 1896 having spent the last twenty years of her life as Mark Twain’s next door neighbor.
No history exists of whatever fate befell those eighteen souls that Josiah Henson could have liberated back in 1825 when he was traveling through Ohio on his way to Kentucky where, “I had a sentiment of honor on the subject, or what I thought such, which I would not have violated even for freedom.”
1. What is a synonym for selection? (1 pt.)
O A. reading compartment O B. test answer booklet
O C. reading passage O D. test question booklet
2. Which sentence uses selection correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Selection the team into 2 groups.
O C. What is the selection doing in the cafeteria?
O D. Selection can be for homework.
3. Mrs. Cochran assigned homework on Monday. The assignment was to read part of a story, a selection, in the new literature book on page 144. If you could read any kind of selection in the new literature book what kind would you like to read and why?
4. From the selection of websites listed, identify the domain name, and organize them in terms of reliability from most to least. Then justify your order.
website domain name justification
5. Strategies to use to ensure comprehension when reading a selection are:
a. _____________________ b. ______________________ c. ________________________
Underground Railroad ran south to Florida for a century
By Bruce Smith - Associated Press
By Bruce Smith CHARLESTON -- While most Americans are familiar with the Underground Railroad that helped Southern slaves escape north before the Civil War, the nation’s first clandestine path to freedom ran for more than a century in the opposite direction.
Stories of that lesser-known “railroad” will be shared June 20 through 24 at the National Underground Railroad Conference in St. Augustine, Fla. The network of sympathizers gave refuge to those fleeing their masters, including many American Indians who helped slaves escape to what was then the Spanish territory of Florida. That lasted from shortly after the founding of Carolina Colony in 1670 to after the American Revolution.
They escaped not only to the South but to Mexico, the Caribbean and the American West.
“It’s a fascinating story and most people in America are stuck – they are either stuck on 1964 and the Civil Rights Act or they are stuck on the Civil War,” said Derek Hankerson, who is a Gullah descendant and a small business owner in St. Augustine, Fla.
“We have been hankering to share these stories.”
Because there are few records, it’s unknown how many African slaves may have escaped along the railroad. But the dream of freedom in Florida did play a role in the 1739 Stono Rebellion outside Charleston, the largest slave revolt in British North America.
Slaves likely started fleeing toward Florida when South Carolina was established in 1670, said Jane Landers, a Vanderbilt University historian who has researched the subject extensively.
The first mention of escaped slaves in Spanish records was in 1687 when eight slaves, including a nursing baby, showed up in St. Augustine.
Spain refused to return them and instead gave them religious sanctuary, and that policy was formalized in 1693.
The only condition was that those seeking sanctuary convert to Catholicism.
“It was a total shift in the geopolitics of the Caribbean and after that anyone who leaves a Protestant area to request sanctuary gets it,” Landers said.
That promise of freedom played an important role in the Stono Rebellion, when a group of about 20 slaves raided a store, collecting guns and other weapons, in September 1739.
Mark Smith, a historian at the University of South Carolina, said the slave leaders were from what is now Angola in Africa. They were Catholic because their homeland was at the time a Portuguese outpost. And they are thought to have been soldiers in their native land.
They would have known about the rumor of freedom in Spanish Florida and decided to start the revolt on Sept. 9, the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
“They have a white flag, which is not a flag of surrender. It’s a flag of celebrating Mary, and they shout ‘Liberty.’ They are not revolting just as slaves, but as Catholic slaves,” Smith said.
At least 20 whites were killed in the rebellion. The militia later caught up with the slaves, and 34 of them were killed.
Some who escaped were found and executed later, although some apparently made it to safety in Florida because there are reports of more slaves arriving in St. Augustine in the ensuing days, Landers said.
Gullah creole is still spoken in churches in northeastern Florida, Landers said.
Hankerson, who grew up with stories of the Underground Railroad, said escaped slaves got help from American Indian tribes including the Creeks, the Cherokees and the Yemassee.
They also advanced deeper into Florida and found refuge with the Seminoles.
Except for about 20 years when the British held St. Augustine between the end of the French and Indian War and the end of the American Revolution, the Spanish policy of sanctuary remained in effect until 1790 when Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson convinced the Spanish crown to end it.
Many runaways escaped amid the chaos and violence of the revolution, and keeping that corridor open could have drained the Southern colonies of slaves, Landers said.
Unlike the Underground Railroad going north, the early network was more informal: Neither the slaves nor the indigenous tribes that helped them left written records, and there was no church structure like the Quakers organizing the effort, Landers said.
It’s unknown exactly how many stayed among the American Indians or how many died.
The British saw slaves as property and labor for their plantations and offered rewards for their return.
By contrast, Landers said, “the Spanish believe the indigenous people and Africans could be converted and as such were humans and had families and souls to save.”
Examine the movement of people by identiying "push" and "pull" factors.
Identify which "direction" you would have gone had you been a slave in pre-Civil War times.
Where would you have gone?
Why would you have gone there?
How would you have gotten there?
1. What is a synonym for justify? (1 pt.)
O A. defend O B. recognize O C. cause O D. effect
2. Which sentence uses justify correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Can you justify the locker combination?
O B. Can you justify your reasons for lying?
O C. Can you justify yourself into being the silliest?
O D. Can you justify your free honor?
3. Read the following poem. What “mood” does the poem suggest? Justify your answer in a well-written sentence with support from the poem. (2 pts.)
Rain by Louise Rill
When it rains
The soft grey sky
Drifts to the ground
Washing sadness down
Weep and turn
Weep and turn
Forgetting in the damp and grey
That by and by
The sun will shine
Sun will shine
By and by
The sun will shine.
Kony video inspires but misses larger point
Written by DeWayne Wickham, 3-15-12
Filmmaker Jason Russell said the goal of his searing video about Joseph Kony, which got more than 70 million YouTube hits within a week, is to make the guerrilla leader famous. By that, I think he really means he wants to use the 30-minute documentary to make Kony infamous in cyberspace. Kony long has been a pretty notorious guy. During the past two decades, he has kidnapped tens of thousands of children. The boys are forced to fight in his army. The girls become sex slaves. In 2005, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Kony. In 2011, the African Union labeled his group a terrorist organization. Shortly before leaving office, President George W. Bush sent 17 counterterrorism advisers to help capture Kony, who was hiding in a Congo national park. He got away. In October, the Obama administration ordered 100 U.S. military advisers into central Africa to train the military forces trying to track down Kony. But so far, he remains elusive.
Plan is simplistic, naive
Russell hopes his documentary, Kony 2012, will help bring the international fugitive to justice. "Its only purpose is to stop the rebel group, the LRA, and their leader, Joseph Kony," said Russell in the video's opening sequence. His plan to do this is simplistic, if not naive. Russell encouraged the video's millions of Internet viewers to send messages via Twitter to 20 "culturemakers" and 12 "policymakers" -- people he thinks can pressure the Obama administration to keep the U.S. military advisers in central Africa until Kony is apprehended. His list of policymakers includes two people who need no introduction -- former presidents Bush and Bill Clinton -- and at least two others -- Rep. Kay Granger, R-Texas, and Rep. Ileana Ros Lehtinen, R-Fla. -- who are far from household names and pack little clout with the Democrat in the Oval Office. Among the "culturemakers" Russell wants people to inundate with tweets calling for sustained U.S. military support of the search for Kony until he is captured is Oprah Winfrey, Bill O'Reilly, Taylor Swift and Rush Limbaugh. That's right, Limbaugh.
Seeks Limbaugh support
Back in October, the conservative talk show host berated President Obama for sending the military advisers to central Africa. The "Lord's Resistance Army are Christians," Limbaugh said at the time. "They are fighting the Muslims in Sudan. And Obama has sent troops, United States troops to ... kill them." All right, so maybe Russell's plan is even more naive than simplistic. Even so, that's not likely to stop large numbers of people from taking up his cause. Sure, the world will be a far better place without Kony trolling about central Africa unleashing his violence on defenseless people. But the commitment from this country to bring him to justice, despite the message of the video, is longstanding and surprisingly bipartisan. So there's no need to cajole the president and congressional leaders. "The documentary is guilty of promoting the sins of the old media," Charles Stith, a former U.S. ambassador to Tanzania, said. His point is that like mainstream media organizations, the video focuses too much on what is wrong with Africa and not enough on the changes taking place in Africa that have helped make Kony a pariah. "Ten years ago, there were only 11 democratically elected leaders of African countries," said Stith, who now heads the African Presidential Archives and Research Center at Boston University. "Today there are 33." It's this change that is "tightening the noose around Kony's neck," he said. And it is the story of Africa that continues to be largely ignored.
How does Joseph Kony justify his enslavement of children into his army in the Congo?
How does filmmaker Jason Russell justify the making of Kony 2012?
How did Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama justify the hunting down of Kony?
How does Rush Limbaugh justify his criticism of the hunting down of Joseph Kony?
How does Charles Stith justify his criticism of the film Kony 2012?
If you watch the video (with parental guidance), how will you justify your opinion of the events?
Justification for War Quotes
Directions: Read each quote.
Interact with the quote by circling, asking a question, or researching.
Write an analysis of how the quote justifies war.
Older men declare war. But it is youth that must fight and die.
Herbert Clark Hoover
Great is the guilt of an unnecessary war.
The problem with sports and war is that God is on everyone's side.
Duane Alan Hahn
Part of the happiness of life consists not in fighting battles, but in avoiding them. A masterly retreat is in itself a victory.
Norman Vincent Peale
You can no more win a war than you can win an earthquake.
You can accomplish by kindness what you cannot by force.
I hate war as only a soldier who has lived it can, only as one who has seen its brutality, its futility, its stupidity.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The direct use of force is such a poor solution to any problem, it is generally employed only by small children and large nations.
Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent.
Fighting is like champagne. It goes to the heads of cowards as quickly as of heroes. Any fool can be brave on a battlefield when it's be brave or else be killed.
All war represents a failure of diplomacy.
Anyone who has ever looked into the glazed eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will think hard before starting a war.
Otto Von Bismarck
Wars can be prevented just as surely as they can be provoked, and we who fail to prevent them must share in the guilt for the dead.
General Omar Bradley
If you insist upon fighting to protect me, or 'our' country, let it be understood soberly and rationally between us that you are fighting to gratify a sex instinct which I cannot share; to procure benefits where I have not shared and probably will not share.
Though force can protect in emergency, only justice, fairness, consideration and cooperation can finally lead men to the dawn of eternal peace.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Peace is not God's gift to his creatures. It is our gift to each other.
Bullets cannot be recalled. They cannot be uninvented. But they can be taken out of the gun.
I do not know with what weapons World War 3 will be fought, but World War 4 will be fought with sticks and stones.
War is delightful to those who have had no experience of it.
Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. War will exist until that distant day when the conscientious objector enjoys the same reputation and prestige that the warrior does today.
John F. Kennedy
I have known war as few men now living know it. It's very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes.
1. What is a synonym for interpret? (1 pt.)
O A. value O B. organize O C. infer O D. quality
2. Which sentence uses interpret correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Can you interpret the rules any way you want to?
O C. Look at them both, and then do your interpret.
O D. Interpret this purse and dress for me.
3. The definition of midriff is “the middle front part of the body.” The school dress code says you cannot show your midriff.
Based on the definition of midriff, can you interpret the dress code to mean you can wear a backless sundress? Why can you wear a backless sundress or why can you not wear a backless sundress. Support your answer with details from the sentence above. (2 pts.)
4. Interpret each Roman Numeral as an interger.
VI = _____ XVI = _____ CIII + = _____
5. Interpret and solve each expression as a Roman Numeral.
5 + 6 = _____ 14 – 4 = _______ 20 + 2 – 15 = _______
6. Interpret the Julius Caesar quote of “I had rather be first in village than second at Rome.”
What does it mean?__________________________________________________________
How can it apply to an example in your life?___________________________________
Quotes of Julius Caesar
Directions: Read each quote by Julius Caesar.
Interpret what each quote means.
Justify support for each interpretation.
Reflect on a quote or quote which means the most to you.
As a rule, men worry more about what they can't see than about what they can.
Caesar's wife must be above suspicion.
Cowards die many times before their actual deaths.
Experience is the teacher of all things.
Fortune, which has a great deal of power in other matters but especially in war, can bring about great changes in a situation through very slight forces.
I had rather be first in a village than second at Rome.
I have lived long enough both in years and in accomplishments.
I have lived long enough to satisfy both nature and glory.
I love the name of honor, more than I fear death.
If you must break the law, do it to seize power: in all other cases observe it.
In war, events of importance are the result of trivial causes.
It is better to create than to learn! Creating is the essence of life.
It is easier to find men who will volunteer to die, than to find those who are willing to endure pain with patience.
It is not these well-fed long-haired men that I fear, but the pale and the hungry-looking.
Men are nearly always willing to believe what they wish.
Men freely believe that which they desire.
Men in general are quick to believe that which they wish to be true.
Men willingly believe what they wish.
No one is so brave that he is not disturbed by something unexpected.
What we wish, we readily believe, and what we ourselves think, we imagine others think also.
Which death is preferably to every other? "The unexpected".
1. What is a synonym for show? (1 pt.)
O A. hide O B. disprove O C. assess O D. explain
2. Which sentence uses show correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Show your interpret after you finish.
O B. Show your work on the grid below.
O C. Show before you procedure.
O D. Show something from the select.
3. Jessica went on a bowling date with James. She bowled 3 games and had scores of 120, 139, and 145. James bowled 3 games and had scores of 78, 140, and 178. Whose average was higher? Show your work on the grid below. Do you think they’ll go out bowling again? (2 pts.)
We’re No. 16 as exports grow
By Amanda Van Benshoten, Cincinnati Enquirer, March 9, 2012
In a positive sign for the economy, exports are on the rise in Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky and across the nation.
U.S. exports grew by 15.4 percent from 2009 to 2010, and metropolitan areas sent $1.13 trillion in goods overseas in 2010, according to latest detailed data released this week by the U.S. Department of Commerce.
The 14-county Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area was the 16th-largest export market in the U.S., exporting $17.6 billion in goods – a 14 percent increase from 2009.
“It’s really good news for us – we’re the 24th, 25th largest metro area in the country, so being ranked 16th (for exports) is a good sign for us,” said Neil Hensley, senior director of economic development at the Cincinnati USA Regional Chamber. “Exporting is an important part of our economy.”
At $8.1 billion, transportation equipment accounted for nearly half of the region’s exports. Much of that is due to Evendale-based GE Aviation, the world’s top supplier of aircraft engines and the region’s largest exporter.
Canada and Mexico were the top recipients of goods produced here, although data was not disclosed for France, a key trade partner for GE.
Exports – both international and domestic – are only projected to grow in the region.
The Ohio Kentucky Indiana Regional Council of Governments, which administers federal transportation funds in the region, predicts “a tsunami of freight” is headed our way by 2040.
“There is a lot of growth in this region when it comes to exports,” said OKI executive director Mark Policinski. “It’s something that’s very important that we understand, and it’s something to take advantage of.”
He said the region will need to expand its capacity to move goods – starting with replacement of the 48-year-old Brent Spence Bridge. A major national freight corridor, the bridge carries nearly 4 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product every year.
“We have to get on the ball and start moving major projects,” Policinski said. “We have to, first of all, fix the Brent Spence Bridge. We will not survive as a regional economy if it’s not fixed. We will not be part of the export explosion if it’s not fixed. We will not be a player in the global economy if it’s not fixed.
“The whole idea is to get goods in here so we can get them built and get them out of here,” he said. “So we have to make sure we move the transportation projects along – whether it be roads, rivers, rails or runways – or we’re going to fall behind.”
4. Read the passage, show you read by interacting with the text.
Circle all examples and uses of “export” and “transportation.”
5. Show by drawing the relationship between transportation and exportation as they relate to this article.
1. What is a synonym for evaluate? (1 pt.)
O A. discriminate
O B. ascertain
O C. assimilate
O D. assess
2. Which sentence uses evaluate correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Evaluate your choices before picking one.
O B. Evaluate and then E-mail some more valuate.
O C. Evaluate before you avow.
O D. Evaluate something from the select.
3. James said, “I couldn’t have done it because I was in choir.” Bethany said, “I couldn’t have done it because I think I was in the bathroom then.” Evaluate both statements and give an opinion of which one was telling the truth. Why do you think he or she was telling the truth? (2 pts.)
4. Evaluate the characteristics of each form of government (Democracy, Dictatorship, Theocracy, and Monarchy) based on the set criteria:
(Write each form of government on the line in an order that it is described, defend any evaluation below with a description)
Most Individual Rights Fewest Individual Rights
Reasoning for Evaluation:
Power of Leader
Most Powerful Least Powerful
Reasoning for Evaluation:
Use of a Constitution (Laws)
Best Use of Constitutions Worst Use of Constitution
Reasoning for Evaluation:
5. Evaluate each expression by solving for x, show your work below.
56 + x = 134 4 + x + 22 = 45 5 – 2 + x = 12 + 14
1. What is a synonym phrase for summarize? (1 pt.)
O A. restate in a shorter version
O B. relent again in a shorter way
O C. make like summer
O D. capitulate in a shorter version
2. Which sentence uses summarize correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Summarize your clothes when it gets warmer.
O B. Summarize after your apology.
O C. Summarize the story in just 5 sentences.
O D. Summarize the passage into long-term memory.
3. The day before the big Rome test, Mr. Brock reviewed the main points of the chapter on Rome. Did Mr. Brock summarize the chapter? Yes or no? Why or why not? (2 pts.)
4. Summarize the law of demand as described by this graph.
5. Summarize the law of supply as described by this graph.
6. Summarize the relationship between supply and demand as described by this graph.
7. Summarize the supply and demand relationship between yourself and something you really want to buy (identify what you want to buy______________). Explain and graph the relationship below.
1. What is a synonym for describe? (1 pt.)
O A. tell apart O B. tell a friend O C. tell a phone O D. tell about
2. Which sentence uses describe correctly? (1 pt.)
O A. Don’t ever describe because you will eat.
O B. Can you describethe person who tripped you?
O C. Describe means the same thing as unwritten.
O D. Describe yesterday’s chair room.
3. Describe the color and approximate size of the shoes you wear. (2 pts.)
Nokia Touts new smartphone
by Adam Clendinning
BARCELONA: Nokia unveiled a new, cheaper smartphone using Microsoft's Windows Phone software on Monday, in an attempt to reverse its declining market share.
Nokia last year dumped its own smartphone software in favour of Microsoft's Windows Phone to step up its fight against rivals such as Apple's iPhone, but the move has so far had limited impact due to the high prices of phones using it.
Nokia said its new Lumia 610 model would carry a price tag of 189 euros ($250), excluding subsidies and taxes, when it goes on sale next quarter.
"The 610 takes Nokia's Lumia portfolio to an encouraging new price point in its pursuit of cheaper Android rivals," said Ben Wood, head of research at CCS Insight.
Investors appeared sceptical that the new model and pricing would do the trick, pulling Nokia shares down 5 percent to 4.10 euros.
"I had hoped for a slightly lower price range. Maybe the markets were a bit disappointed with the price, which was quite high," Inderes analyst Mikael Rautanen said, though he noted the shares had spiked on Friday in anticipation of the event.
Nokia also announced a global version of its high-end Lumia 900 phone at the Mobile World Congress trade show in Barcelona.
It also unveiled a new top-of-the range cameraphone 808, which comes with a 41 megapixel camera sensor, and three more basic models.
Microsoft's share of the smartphone market fell to just 2 percent last quarter, from 3 percent a year ago and 13 percent four years earlier, according to Strategy Analytics.
Wall Street and industry analysts say that though the latest Windows phones could be worthy competitors to Apple's iPhone and top-of-the-range Android handsets, the devices lack unique qualities to make their sales take off.
4. Describe the impact Nokia's new smart phones will have on:
5. Describe the impact of innovation on the economy.
Lawmakers push Ohio as possible patent office site
'Linsanity' sparks trademark war
The bipartisan group touted Ohio's workforce, research facilities and connections to global companies, noting that the state was the birthplace of inventor Thomas Edison and a pair of aviation legends, the Wright brothers.
"Ohio offers the advantages of a large state - world class universities, brilliant labor pool, and innovators - coupled with Midwestern value and work ethic," said the letter from Sens. Sherrod Brown and Rob Portman and Reps. Steve Stivers and Patrick Tiberi. They cited examples of innovators from various pockets of the state, including the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Cincinnati-based Procter and Gamble, and the U.S. Air Force laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton.
But other factors might inhibit the area's chance of getting such an office, including the number of patent applications from Ohio and its proximity to another satellite site planned in Detroit.
The America Invents Act passed by Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama last fall requires patent officials to create at least three more U.S. offices within three years. It's an effort to improve interactions with patent applicants, boost the recruitment and hiring of patent examiners and reduce the number of patent applications waiting to be examined in an approval process that can take three years amid a backlog of hundreds of thousands of applications.
Last month's announcement that one of the sites would be in Detroit, roughly 50 miles from Ohio, likely hurts the state's chances of getting a satellite office because the law requires that "geographic diversity" be among the factors considered in choosing the satellite sites. Other factors included regional economic impact and the availability of workers with scientific and technological knowledge who might become patent examiners.
Then there's the consideration of patent filings. Ohio residents received 3,837 patents in 2010 and an estimated 3,850 last year, ranking the state well above the 10 that had fewer than 200 patents issued but well behind the leading patent-receiving states, according to the patent office. California, expected by industry experts to be a leading contender for a satellite office, had nearly 30,400 patents issued last year, or about a quarter of the total of roughly 120,000. New York and Texas followed with about 8,000 each.
But Ohio officials aren't ready to count the Buckeye State out of the running. Columbus2020, a regional economic development organization, has spearheaded the local push for a patent office.
"Doing this is right up our alley," said Matt McQuade, business development director. "We're the ones who are trying to create jobs."
The Cleveland Clinic expressed support for the idea, as did Battelle Memorial Institute and Ohio State University.
Letters from those Columbus sites were among more than 500 comments the trade office said it received during a designated comment period as people advocated for potential satellite sites around the country. The office planned to go through the comments and eventually post them online.
The America Invents Act marks the first overhaul of the U.S. patent system since 1952. It ensures that the patent office has funding to expedite the application process and switches the United States from the "first-to-invent" system to the "first-inventor-to-file" system for patent applications.
Trademark war swirls around 'Linsanity' as NBA prepares more Jeremy Lin merchandise
The fanatical frenzy surrounding New York Knicks point guard Jeremy Lin is becoming even more Linsane.
A trademark war is brewing over the catch-phrase that describes the crazed excitement around Lin.
Since his breakout 25-point game against the Nets on Feb. 4, there have been seven applications filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to trademark "Linsanity".
That includes one by Pamela Deese, a lawyer representing Lin.
The applications cover use of the phrase on everything from cellphone cases and sunglasses to action figures and footwear.
A trademark can take a year or more to register.
The NBA says Lin jerseys have been the hottest selling jerseys at its online store since Feb. 4. It is preparing to sell more Lin-related merchandise like bobbleheads and plush animals.